put out your fires and lights at the eight o’clock bell


      “There are few points in the ancient jurisprudence of England which are enveloped in more doubt and obscurity, or which have given rise to more conflicting opinions its to their origin and intention than the couvre-feu law. Some have regarded it as a cruel devise of our first William the Conqueror to coerce and enslave his newly acquired Saxon subjects; whilst others have seen in it a wise and thoughtful provision for the prevention of fires, and have endeavoured to trace its nativity to an age antecedent to the Norman conquest. Although there is no evidence to show that the couvre-feu law originated with the Norman conqueror, yet it appears certain that in the year 1068 he ordained that all people should put out their fires and lights at the eight o’clock bell, and go to bed.”
curfew, couvre-feu, curphour, ignitegium, peritegium, carre-feu, cerre-feu
protect or prevent;  from deeds incendiary or insurgent
from: Journal of the British Archaeological Association

A couvre-feu cloche, 15th century

the curfew cloche also the curfew cloche tower

       ” But it is time to allude to the instrument by which the fires were extinguished — the couvre-feu. This utensil is called a curfew, or couvre-feu, from its use, which is that of suddenly putting out a fire. This curfew [cloche, dome, cupola] is of copper, riveted together, as solder would have been liable to melt with the heat.’

A bastion in Römerstadt Siedlung, Ernst May, (1927-29)

bastion · citadel · fort · castle · redoubt · alcazar
embankment · buttress · turret · rampart · bunker
hold · fastness · burg · tower · donjon · peel
garrison · keep · fortalice · bartizan ·
bulwark · stronghold · barbican · fortification
acropolis · battlement · stockade
· blockhouse



Giedion does not know why this should be

Ballynahatty Ireland

 Marshall McLuhan to Jaqueline Tyrwhitt | Dear Jackie: The old plate is piled very high indeed. I must forego any thought of a visit to Harvard this this Spring. Work here at the Centre has become more and more demanding. | Last night I was reading Finnegans Wake pages 492 to 505. I thought at once of writing to Giedion about it. In these pages Joyce runs through the letters of the alphabet from A to Z as a social cycle. When he gets to Z, the cycle begins again. He explicitly indicates the return to primal undiscriminated auditory space, then begins again the discovery of the vertical plane and enclosed space and numbers and measurement. Joyce is quite explicit that (page 501) as the alphabet ends its cycle we move out of visual space into discontinuous auditory space again. This he mentions as the return to “Lewd’s Carol,” that is, through the looking glass into the world of non-Euclidean space once more, lewd, ignorant, tribal, involved totally as in group singing. In his “Beginnings of Architecture” Giedion cites the evidence several times that there is no architectural enclosing of space before script. Giedion does not know why this should be. Visual space alone of all the space discriminated by our various senses is continuous, uniform and connected. Any technology that extends the visual power imposes these visual properties upon all other spaces. Our own return in the electric age to a non-visual world has confronted us suddenly with this tyrannical and usurping power of the visual over the other senses. Kevin Lynch doesn’t understand this matter at all. My own phrase for city planning is that the city has become a teaching machine. The planner’s job is to program the entire environment by an artistic modulation of sensory usage. Art is a CARE package dispatched to undernourished areas or the human sensorium. What the artist has formerly done on a private entrepreneurial basis the planner now must do on a corporate or group basis. This is equally true of education and government. Instead of worrying about program content, the job is now to program the total sensorium. | Understanding Media will be published May 26th by McGraw-Hill. You should be receiving a copy soon. | Had lunch with a Greek chap who is in the research division of McCann-Erickson. He is greatly interested in my proposal about a pre-TV study of the Greek population. We have our sensory typology experiments ready to go. I enclose a description of one of them for you. Our friend, Philip Deane, has left the UN to become Secretary-General to the King of Greece. He will be a great help in any matter that we undertake. | Please tell me your dates of departure and where I can reach you.
from: ‘Letters of Marshall McLuhan’ by Matie Molinaro, Corinne McLuhan, William Toye.


The European Voynich Alphabet, or EVA was created by René Zandbergen and Gabriel Landini in 1998 as a system to transcribe the various graphemes (“letters”) which make up the text of the Voynich Manuscript into Roman characters. With EVA, every Voynich sign is represented by a roughly similar-looking letter of the Latin alphabet. The purpose of transliteration of the text is the conversion of the handwritten text of the Voynich MS into a computer-readable format (file). The aim of this is to allow computer software to analyse the text, for example in order to derive statistics or to aid the interpretation and ideally translation of the text. This process was called ‘transcription’. Transcription means a transformation of a text such that it will be substituted by another text made by a well-known alphabet of phonetic symbols. This is only possible in case we already know how the text reads.


les professeurs espagnols

il n’y a que des imbéciles et des professeurs espagnols qui puissent s’intéresser aux dates

Hans Jean Arp, “Déclaration”, Dada: recueil littéraire et artistique: Dada In Tirol Au grand air Der Sängerkrieg, 1921


Warsaw Housing Cooperative (WSM)

Warsaw Housing Cooperative was established in 1921, and by 1925 the first colony was built in Żoliborz district.